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Kubernetes, Its Key Components and Prerequisites for Managed DevOps Services

Kubernetes is an open-source container orchestration solution for managing, scaling, and automating software deployment. This open-source platform has become a cornerstone in the realm of cloud-native technologies. It makes DevOps easier by merging the development and maintenance phases of software systems and eventually achieving Managed DevOps Services. Its user interface allows developers to analyze, access, deploy, upgrade, and optimize container ecosystems. Here, containerization is a more efficient and effective way to implement DevOps than monolithic software. It aids DevOps teams in lowering infrastructure burden by allowing containers to run without failure on a variety of machines/environments. 

The Key Components of Kubernetes

Kubernetes operates through pivotal components like pods, deployments, services, and more. Let’s break down each of these to understand what they do and why they matter in Kubernetes.


At the core of Kubernetes are pods, the smallest deployable units that contain one or more containers. These containers share resources and networking, forming the basic building blocks for applications.


Deployments enable the management and scaling of replicas within pods. They ensure the desired state of applications, allowing for seamless updates and rollbacks.


Services abstract the network and enable communication between different parts of an application, providing a stable endpoint for accessing resources inside a cluster.


Ingress manages external access to services within a cluster, facilitating routing and load balancing for incoming traffic. 

ConfigMaps and Secrets 

ConfigMaps and Secrets manage configuration data and sensitive information, respectively, enabling the decoupling of configuration from containerized applications.  

Prerequisites of Learning Kubernetes 

There are several prerequisites, or the fundamental knowledge and skills required to effectively learn and navigate the world of Kubernetes. From operating systems to concepts like YAML and data storage, these foundational elements play a crucial role in mastering Kubernetes. Let’s explore further and learn more about them:

Operating Systems for Computers

Proficiency in various operating systems, particularly Linux distributions like Ubuntu, CentOS, or Fedora, is beneficial due to Kubernetes’ strong integration with Linux.

Typically, Linux is used as the operating system, however, Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS) also supports Windows Node Pools, allowing you to run Windows workloads. 


YAML is one of the major prerequisites for mastering DevOps and also to achieve Managed DevOps Services. You’ve almost certainly come across a YAML file if you’ve been working on software for a long time, particularly with Kubernetes or containers. YAML, which stands for “Yet Another Markup Language,” is a text format for defining configuration data. It is essential to study the structure of YAML as well as the principles of writing a YAML file. 

There are various advantages to using YAML files: 

1. They are easily decipherable by humans. YAML files are both expressive and flexible.   

2. These are simple to configure and user-friendly files.  

3. They are easily portable between programming languages.   

4. They correspond to the inherent data structures of agile languages.   

5. YAML files follow a standard model to support generic tools.   

6. They enable one-pass processing.   

7. You don’t have to put all of your parameters on the command line because they’re straightforward to use.   

8. You can manage and update YAML files by keeping track of changes using source control.  

9. They are versatile. YAML enables you to create significantly more complex structures than the command line. 

Kubernetes YAML usage 

Now that we’ve seen the benefits of YAML files, let’s look at how YAML is utilized in Kubernetes. The Kubernetes resources are produced declaratively, utilizing YAML files. YAML files are used to create Kubernetes resources such as pods, services, and deployments. 

Data Storage 

When launching a stateful application in Kubernetes, it’s crucial to address the management of its state. Kubernetes Pods and containers are transient by nature, subject to being terminated, replaced, or redeployed at any moment. Consequently, relying solely on Kubernetes Pods to maintain state is impractical.

To effectively manage stateful applications, understanding storage is imperative. Storage refers to the location where data resides within an IT environment, encompassing various forms such as database images, audio files, and more. 


Kubernetes, like infrastructure, necessitates network connectivity. Networking is one of the most critical components of Kubernetes. If you don’t understand networking, ports, load balancers, and firewalls, you won’t be able to deploy a Kubernetes application. 

Transfer data from one backend Kubernetes application to another. It must be publicly accessible to consumers, such as a front-end web app or webpage.

Kubernetes extensively relies on networking to communicate between Kubernetes Deployments, Pods, and Services.  


Application security is typically at fault when it comes to breaches. When deploying applications to Kubernetes, you must understand how to protect them. This does not mean you have to be a red hat hacker out to bring down the FBI, but you must understand how to deploy and monitor an application securely.  

The other component is the actual Kubernetes infrastructure layer and the requisite security. It’s not just about the application; it’s also about who gets access to which applications, clusters, and Kubernetes components.

Kubernetes Architecture 

At its core Kubernetes lies a sophisticated architecture designed to manage containerized workloads efficiently across a cluster of machines. Whether you utilize Kubernetes on-premises or in the cloud, the internal design remains the same.

Nodes in Kubernetes

Kubernetes operates on a cluster of nodes, which are individual machines—physical or virtual—that form the backbone of the system. These nodes are categorized into two types: 

Master Nodes: Also known as the control plane, master nodes oversee the cluster’s state and manage its operations. Components like the API server, scheduler, controller manager, and etcd (key-value store) are hosted on master nodes. The API server acts as the primary gateway for controlling the cluster.

Worker Nodes: These nodes execute the application workloads by hosting pods. Each worker node runs services essential for managing networking, containers, and storage. They execute the tasks assigned by the master nodes, ensuring the proper functioning of applications within containers.

Components of the Control Plane

The master nodes house vital components that collectively form the control plane:

API server: All Kubernetes deployments, services, and other actions are executed programmatically. The API is the sole way to perform Kubernetes actions programmatically. The API server provides REST access to the Kubernetes cluster. 

Scheduler: The scheduler is in charge of assigning jobs to nodes. Assume you have a three-node cluster with one node reaching its capacity limit. Because of this, the Scheduler will route workloads to a different node.

Controller Manager: Monitors the state of the cluster through various controllers, ensuring that the actual state matches the desired state.

etcd: A distributed key-value store that stores the cluster’s configuration data and states, providing a reliable way to manage and store information across the cluster.

Worker Node Components

Worker Nodes are the servers in charge of all the heavy lifting. It includes all of the containers, pods, deployments, and other components required to run the apps. In addition to hosting the pods, contain various components essential for running and managing the workloads: 

Kubelet: An agent that interacts with the control plane, ensuring that containers are running within pods as expected. 

Container Runtime: The container runtime, like Docker or containerd, executes and manages containers, handling their operations and lifecycle.

Kube Proxy: Manages network communication between pods and services, handling routing and network traffic within the cluster.

Kubernetes Cloud Services  

Leading cloud providers like Google Cloud Platform (GCP) with GKE (Google Kubernetes Engine), Amazon Web Services (AWS) with EKS (Elastic Kubernetes Service), and Microsoft Azure with AKS (Azure Kubernetes Service) offer managed Kubernetes services, simplifying cluster management and maintenance. When you use a Kubernetes service in the cloud, you don’t have to bother about managing a master node, the API, etc. You only need to be concerned with managing the worker nodes. 

Becoming proficient in Kubernetes requires a wide-ranging skill set that goes beyond its main elements. It also involves a deep grasp of related technologies like networking, security measures, and cloud connections. Proficiency in these areas is crucial for fully utilizing Kubernetes. As businesses increasingly adopt cloud-based systems, expertise in Kubernetes will be highly valued. It enables smooth, scalable, and robust application deployments and helps in achieving Managed DevOps Services.

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